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J Hazard Mater. 2015 Jan 23;282:10-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.08.075. Epub 2014 Oct 5.

Reconnaissance of 47 antibiotics and associated microbial risks in seafood sold in the United States.

Author information

  • 1Center for Environmental Security, The Biodesign Institute, Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.
  • 2Center for Environmental Security, The Biodesign Institute, Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA; Department of Environmental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: halden@asu.edu.

Abstract

Aquaculture production has nearly tripled in the last two decades, bringing with it a significant increase in the use of antibiotics. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the presence of 47 antibiotics was investigated in U.S. purchased shrimp, salmon, catfish, trout, tilapia, and swai originating from 11 different countries. All samples (n=27) complied with U.S. FDA regulations and five antibiotics were detected above the limits of detection: oxytetracycline (in wild shrimp, 7.7ng/g of fresh weight; farmed tilapia, 2.7; farmed salmon, 8.6; farmed trout with spinal deformities, 3.9), 4-epioxytetracycline (farmed salmon, 4.1), sulfadimethoxine (farmed shrimp, 0.3), ormetoprim (farmed salmon, 0.5), and virginiamycin (farmed salmon marketed as antibiotic-free, 5.2). A literature review showed that sub-regulatory levels of antibiotics, as found here, can promote resistance development; publications linking aquaculture to this have increased more than 8-fold from 1991 to 2013. Although this study was limited in size and employed sample pooling, it represents the largest reconnaissance of antibiotics in U.S. seafood to date, providing data on previously unmonitored antibiotics and on farmed trout with spinal deformities. Results indicate low levels of antibiotic residues and general compliance with U.S. regulations. The potential for development of microbial drug resistance was identified as a key concern and research priority.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotic resistance; Antibiotics; Aquaculture; Oxytetracycline; Seafood

PMID:
25449970
PMCID:
PMC4254636
DOI:
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.08.075
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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