Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Vet Microbiol. 2015 Jan 30;175(1):26-34. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.09.022. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Application of cattle slurry containing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) to grassland soil and its effect on the relationship between MAP and free-living amoeba.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. Electronic address: miguelsalgado@uach.cl.
2
Institute for Agricultural Research (INIA), Remehue Research Centre, Osorno, Chile. Electronic address: malfaro@inia.cl.
3
Institute for Agricultural Research (INIA), Remehue Research Centre, Osorno, Chile. Electronic address: fsalazar@inia.cl.
4
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. Electronic address: xbadilla@gmail.com.
5
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. Electronic address: p.troncoso.condeza@gmail.com.
6
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. Electronic address: angarahzambrano@gmail.com.
7
Clinical Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. Electronic address: mario.gonzalez@uach.cl.
8
Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Electronic address: rmm257@gmail.com.
9
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA. Electronic address: mcollin5@wisc.edu.

Abstract

Slurry from dairy farms is commonly used to fertilize crops and pastures. This mixture of manure, urine and water can harbor multiple microbial pathogens among which Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major concern. Persistence of MAP in soil and infection of soil Acanthamoeba was evaluated by culture, real-time IS900 PCR, and by staining of amoeba with acid-fast and vital stains comparing soils irrigated with MAP-spiked or control dairy farm slurry. MAP DNA was detected in soil for the 8 month study duration. MAP was detected by PCR from more soil samples for plots receiving MAP-spiked slurry (n=61/66) than from soils receiving control slurry (n=10/66 samples). Vital stains verified that intracellular MAP in amoeba was viable. More MAP was found in amoeba at the end of the study than immediately after slurry application. There was no relationship between MAP presence in soil and in amoeba over time. Infection of amoeba by MAP provides a protected niche for the persistence and even possibly the replication of MAP in soils. As others have suggested, MAP-infected amoeba may act like a "Trojan horse" providing a means for persistence in soils and potentially a source of infection for grazing animals.

KEYWORDS:

Cattle slurry; Free-living amoeba; Grassland soil; MAP; Persistence

PMID:
25448447
DOI:
10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.09.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center