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Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015 Aug 1;219:74-88. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.11.003. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Plasticizer endocrine disruption: Highlighting developmental and reproductive effects in mammals and non-mammalian aquatic species.

Author information

1
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4, Canada.
2
Wildlife and Landscape Science Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada.
3
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4, Canada. Electronic address: valerie.langlois@rmc.ca.

Abstract

Due to their versatility, robustness, and low production costs, plastics are used in a wide variety of applications. Plasticizers are mixed with polymers to increase flexibility of plastics. However, plasticizers are not covalently bound to plastics, and thus leach from products into the environment. Several studies have reported that two common plasticizers, bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, induce adverse health effects in vertebrates; however few studies have addressed their toxicity to non-mammalian species. The aim of this review is to compare the effects of plasticizers in animals, with a focus on aquatic species. In summary, we identified three main chains of events that occur in animals exposed to BPA and phthalates. Firstly, plasticizers affect development by altering both the thyroid hormone and growth hormone axes. Secondly, these chemicals interfere with reproduction by decreasing cholesterol transport through the mitochondrial membrane, leading to reduced steroidogenesis. Lastly, exposure to plasticizers leads to the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, the increase of fatty acid oxidation, and the reduction in the ability to cope with the augmented oxidative stress leading to reproductive organ malformations, reproductive defects, and decreased fertility.

KEYWORDS:

Aquatic vertebrates; BPA; Bisphenol A; Phthalates; Sex steroids; Thyroid hormones

PMID:
25448254
DOI:
10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.11.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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