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Gene. 2015 Jan 25;555(2):291-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.11.019. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Insertion sequence elements in Lactococcus garvieae.

Author information

1
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Division of Food Microbiology and Bioprocesses, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy. Electronic address: giovanni.eraclio@unimi.it.
2
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Division of Food Microbiology and Bioprocesses, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy. Electronic address: giovanni.ricci@unimi.it.
3
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Division of Food Microbiology and Bioprocesses, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy. Electronic address: grazia.fortina@unimi.it.

Abstract

Insertion sequences are the simplest intracellular Mobile Genetic Elements which can occur in very high numbers in prokaryotic genomes, where they play an important evolutionary role by promoting genome plasticity. As such, the studies on the diversity and distribution of insertion sequences in genomes not yet investigated can contribute to improve the knowledge on a bacterial species and to identify new transposable elements. The present work describes the occurrence of insertion sequences in Lactococcus garvieae, an opportunistic emerging zoonotic and human pathogen, also associated with different food matrices. To date, no insertion elements have been described for L. garvieae in the IS element database. The analysis of the twelve published L. garvieae genomes identified 15 distinct insertion sequences that are members of the IS3, IS982, IS6, IS21 and IS256 families, including five new elements. Most of the insertion sequences in L. garvieae show substantial homology to the Lactococcus lactis elements, suggesting the movement of IS between these two species phylogenetically closely related. ISLL6 elements belonging to IS3 family were most abundant, with several copies distributed in 9 of the 12 genomes analyzed. An alignment analysis of two complete genomes carrying multi-copies of this insertion sequence indicates a possible involvement of ISLL6 in chromosomal rearrangement.

KEYWORDS:

Characterization; Diversity; Lactic acid bacteria; Mobile Genetic Elements; Transposase

PMID:
25447909
DOI:
10.1016/j.gene.2014.11.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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