Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Adv Biol Regul. 2015 Jan;57:147-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jbior.2014.09.010. Epub 2014 Sep 28.

Diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, and their metabolic enzymes in synaptic vesicle recycling.

Author information

1
The Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
2
The Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address: draben@jhmi.edu.

Abstract

The synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle includes exocytosis of vesicles loaded with a neurotransmitter such as glutamate, coordinated recovery of SVs by endocytosis, refilling of vesicles, and subsequent release of the refilled vesicles from the presynaptic bouton. SV exocytosis is tightly linked with endocytosis, and variations in the number of vesicles, and/or defects in the refilling of SVs, will affect the amount of neurotransmitter available for release (Sudhof, 2004). There is increasing interest in the roles synaptic vesicle lipids and lipid metabolizing enzymes play in this recycling. Initial emphasis was placed on the role of polyphosphoinositides in SV cycling as outlined in a number of reviews (Lim and Wenk, 2009; Martin, 2012; Puchkov and Haucke, 2013; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005). Other lipids are now recognized to also play critical roles. For example, PLD1 (Humeau et al., 2001; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005) and some DGKs (Miller et al., 1999; Nurrish et al., 1999) play roles in neurotransmission which is consistent with the critical roles for phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the regulation of SV exo/endocytosis (Cremona et al., 1999; Exton, 1994; Huttner and Schmidt, 2000; Lim and Wenk, 2009; Puchkov and Haucke, 2013; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005). PLD generates phosphatidic acid by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and in some systems this PtdOH is de-phosphorylated to generate DAG. In contrast, DGK catalyzes the phosphorylation of DAG thereby converting it into PtdOH. While both enzymes are poised to regulate the levels of DAG and PtdOH, therefore, they both lead to the generation of PtdOH and could have opposite effects on DAG levels. This is particularly important for SV cycling as PtdOH and DAG are both needed for evoked exocytosis (Lim and Wenk, 2009; Puchkov and Haucke, 2013; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005). Two lipids and their involved metabolic enzymes, two sphingolipids have also been implicated in exocytosis: sphingosine (Camoletto et al., 2009; Chan et al., 2012; Chan and Sieburth, 2012; Darios et al., 2009; Kanno et al., 2010; Rohrbough et al., 2004) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (Chan, Hu, 2012; Chan and Sieburth, 2012; Kanno et al., 2010). Finally a number of reports have focused on the somewhat less well studies roles of sphingolipids and cholesterol in SV cycling. In this report, we review the recent understanding of the roles PLDs, DGKs, and DAG lipases, as well as sphingolipids and cholesterol play in synaptic vesicle cycling.

KEYWORDS:

Cholesterol; Diacylglycerol; Diacylglycerol kinase; Neuroscience; Phospholipase D; Sphingosine; Synaptic vesicle cycle; phosphatidic acid

PMID:
25446883
PMCID:
PMC4803075
DOI:
10.1016/j.jbior.2014.09.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center