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Brain Res. 2015 Aug 18;1617:72-92. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.048. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Toward an immune-mediated subtype of autism spectrum disorder.

Author information

1
Lurie Center for Autism, Lexington, MA, United States; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address: cmcdougle@partners.org.
2
Behavioral Genetics Laboratory, Belmont, MA, United States; McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, United States.
3
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
4
Lurie Center for Autism, Lexington, MA, United States; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
5
Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, United States; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
6
Behavioral Genetics Laboratory, Belmont, MA, United States; McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
7
Lurie Center for Autism, Lexington, MA, United States; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Abstract

A role for immunological involvement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has long been hypothesized. This review includes four sections describing (1) evidence for a relationship between familial autoimmune disorders and ASD; (2) results from post-mortem and neuroimaging studies that investigated aspects of neuroinflammation in ASD; (3) findings from animal model work in ASD involving inflammatory processes; and (4) outcomes from trials of anti-inflammatory/immune-modulating drugs in ASD that have appeared in the literature. Following each section, ideas are provided for future research, suggesting paths forward in the continuing effort to define the role of immune factors and inflammation in the pathophysiology of a subtype of ASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease.

KEYWORDS:

Animal models; Autism spectrum disorder; Autoimmune disorders; Immunology; Neuroimaging; Pathophysiology; Post-mortem; Psychopharmacology

PMID:
25445995
DOI:
10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.048
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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