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Diabet Med. 2015 Jun;32(6):810-3. doi: 10.1111/dme.12644. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Low prevalence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in northern India.

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Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.
Medical Genetics, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia.



To study the frequency of islet antibodies in a large cohort of clinic- and community-based patients with Type 2 diabetes in northern India.


We measured glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies in 618 adults with Type 2 diabetes (378 patients with diabetes attending a hospital clinic, 240 patients diagnosed in a community survey) and in 192 healthy subjects residing in north India. Islet antigen 2 (IA2) antibodies were also studied in a proportion of the patients with diabetes (n = 492) and in a control population (n = 191). GAD and IA2 antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation of the respective (35) S-labelled recombinant antigen.


We found that GAD antibodies were present in nine (1.5%) patients with diabetes (clinic population: 0.8%, community study: 2.5%), a prevalence similar to that among the subjects without diabetes (n = 2; 1%). IA2 antibodies were detected in seven patients with Type 2 diabetes (1.4%) and in two healthy control subjects (1.0%). The frequency of either GAD or IA2 antibodies was similar in people with and without diabetes (3.2 vs 2.1%). No subject was found to have both antibodies. Insulin requirement was higher among antibody-positive than among antibody-negative patients (GAD antibody: 33 vs 6.3%; P = 0.001; GAD or IA2 antibody: 23.1 vs 6.4%; P = 0.02); however, other clinical features were similar in the two groups.


In the present north-Indian population with Type 2 diabetes, the overall prevalence of GAD antibodies and the prevalence of either GAD or IA2 antibodies were considerably lower than those reported in white European populations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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