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Alzheimers Dement. 2015 May;11(5):561-78. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2014.06.004. Epub 2014 Nov 15.

Innovative diagnostic tools for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

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Section for Dementia Research, Hertie-Institute of Clinical Brain Research and Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
Center of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research and Care, School of Medical Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; McCusker Alzheimer's Research Foundation, School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Perth, Australia; Australian e-Health Research Centre, Perth, WA, Australia.
Systems Engineering and Automation Department, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Donostia, Spain.
Neuroscience Research Center, Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom.
Semeion Research Centre of Sciences of Communication, Rome, Italy; Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Center for Computational and Mathematical Biology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA.
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
Felix Platter Hospital, University Center for Medicine of Aging Basel, Basel Mobility Center, Basel, Switzerland.
Department of Internal Medicine & Institute for Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.


Current state-of-the-art diagnostic measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are invasive (cerebrospinal fluid analysis), expensive (neuroimaging) and time-consuming (neuropsychological assessment) and thus have limited accessibility as frontline screening and diagnostic tools for AD. Thus, there is an increasing need for additional noninvasive and/or cost-effective tools, allowing identification of subjects in the preclinical or early clinical stages of AD who could be suitable for further cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnostics. Implementation of such tests may facilitate early and potentially more effective therapeutic and preventative strategies for AD. Before applying them in clinical practice, these tools should be examined in ongoing large clinical trials. This review will summarize and highlight the most promising screening tools including neuropsychometric, clinical, blood, and neurophysiological tests.


Alzheimer's disease; Diagnostic tools; Early detection; Noninvasive tests; Screening tests

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