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Med Clin North Am. 2014 Nov;98(6):1239-60. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2014.08.002. Epub 2014 Oct 18.

Common dental and periodontal diseases: evaluation and management.

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Oral Medicine and Geriatric Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, 309 East Second Street, Pomona, CA 91766, USA; Private Oral Medicine Practice, 350 S. Beverly Drive, Suite 160, Beverly Hills, CA 90212, USA; Department of Surgery - Dentistry, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Continuing Education, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, 925 West 34th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA; Private Practice Limited to Periodontics and Dental Implants, 9400 Brighton Way, #311, Beverly Hills, CA 90210, USA.


Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management.


Dental abscess; Dental attrition; Dental caries; Dental erosion; Gingivitis; Periodontal bone loss; Periodontal disease

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