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Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2014 Nov;25(4):897-913. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2014.06.013. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

Performance-enhancing drugs: understanding the risks.

Author information

1
Sports Antidoping Science Consultant, PO Box 4795, Culver City, CA 90231, USA. Electronic address: ckhatton@aol.com.
2
Division of Sports Medicine, Pacific Palisades Medical Group, University of California, Los Angeles, 15200 Sunset Boulevard, Suite 107, Pacific Palisades, CA 90272, USA.
3
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of California at San Francisco, 450 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Abstract

To help clinicians understand the risks associated with performance-enhancing drugs, this overview covers prohibited lists of substances and methods, therapeutic use exemptions, the legitimate indications and adverse effects, including for megadose and polypharmacy doping of stimulants, anabolic steroids, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and growth hormone and ways in which physicians or patients risk committing anti-doping rule violations inadvertently.

KEYWORDS:

Anabolic steroids; Blood doping; Dietary supplements; Growth hormone; Nonanalytical positive doping cases; Sports doping; Stimulants; Therapeutic use exemptions

PMID:
25442165
DOI:
10.1016/j.pmr.2014.06.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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