Send to

Choose Destination
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2015 Jan;45(1):57-72. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2014.09.004. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Principles and application of range of motion and stretching in companion animals.

Author information

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, NCSU CVM VHC #2563, 1052 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607-4065, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Physical Therapy, 615 McCallie Avenue, Chattanooga, TN 37403-2598, USA.


Optimal function after injury, surgery, or in patients with chronic conditions requires adequate motion in joints, muscles, tendon, fascia, and skin. Range of motion and stretching exercises are commonly used in companion animal rehabilitation programs to maintain or improve motion of musculoskeletal tissues. Range of motion exercises and stretching prevent adhesions from forming, help scar tissue remodeling, may improve muscle tone, and prevent future injury from occurring. Stretching is used to avoid loss of motion or to regain lost joint motion. Stretching is done manually, using external coaptation, or using therapeutic exercises. Careful documentation of range of motion is necessary.


Contracture; Dog; Flexibility; Joint motion; Passive range of motion; Range of motion; Stretching

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center