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Memory. 2016;24(1):32-43. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2014.982657. Epub 2014 Dec 1.

False recognition of instruction-set lures.

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a Department of Psychology , University of Manitoba , Winnipeg , MB , Canada.
b Department of Psychology , Wilfrid Laurier University , Waterloo , ON , Canada.
c Department of Psychology , Brooklyn College , City University of New York , New York City , NY , USA.


False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition.


False memory; Recognition; Source monitoring

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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