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Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2015 Mar;15:127-30. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.11.008. Epub 2014 Nov 15.

Expanding X-chromosomal forensic haplotype frequencies database: Italian population data of four linkage groups.

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Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, DIMEC, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, DIMEC, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Bologna, Italy.
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, BIGEA, Laboratory of Molecular Anthropology, University of Bologna, Italy.


Requests for solving complex kinship casework involving at least one female are increasing and in these circumstances the analysis of X-chromosomal STR markers plays a relevant role. Actually, it is well known the superior statistical power of X-STRs compared to autosomal markers in solving relationship when two sisters or half-sisters are involved and none of parents is available, in maternity testing or in cases involving close relatives as alternative putative fathers. In addition, the possibility to amplify more loci simultaneously and the strategy based on the analysis of four linkage groups to obtain the X-haplotype provide a powerful and validated tool. Nevertheless, haplotypes frequency distribution in different populations is still needed for calculation of probabilities in relationship testing. Published haplotype frequencies from German population data are available, but in different caseworks we found unreported X-haplotypes. To enlarge the forensic X-chromosome database, we present haplotype frequencies and other parameter of forensic interest obtained from 200 anonymous DNA samples of unrelated Italian males for the four linkage groups included in the Investigator Argus X-12 kit. From the comparison of the Italian sample haplotype frequencies with other populations, significant genetic distances were found with Asian and African populations, but not with Europeans. Finally, casework examples of complex kinship analysis are presented.


Haplotype frequencies; Investigator Argus X-12; Kinship analysis; STR markers; X-chromosome

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