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Phys Rev Lett. 2014 Nov 14;113(20):203601. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

Magneto-optic modulator with unit quantum efficiency.

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The Dodd-Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum Technologies & Department of Physics, University of Otago, 730 Cumberland Street, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand.


We propose a device for the reversible and quiet conversion of microwave photons to optical sideband photons that can reach 100% quantum efficiency. The device is based on an erbium-doped crystal placed in both an optical and microwave resonator. We show that efficient conversion can be achieved so long as the product of the optical and microwave cooperativity factors can be made large. We argue that achieving this regime is feasible with current technology and we discuss a possible implementation.

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