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Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2016 Nov;88(5):E145-E150. doi: 10.1002/ccd.25760. Epub 2014 Dec 15.

Perforating the atretic pulmonary valve with CTO hardware: Technical aspects.

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Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.



To review the success and technical aspects of pulmonary valve (PV) perforation using chronic total occlusion (CTO) hardware in patients with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum (PA-IVS).


Interventional therapy is possible in selected patients with PA-IVS. Among the various interventional options available, radiofrequency and laser assisted perforation may be more successful, but require expertise and may be substantially costly.


We describe the technique of mechanical catheter PV perforation using currently available coronary hardware meant for coronary CTO in nine cases with PA-IVS. After complete echocardiographic evaluation and informed parental consent was obtained, patients were electively intubated, mechanically ventilated, adequately heparinized and were placed on intravenous prostaglandin infusion. Basic steps involved were-localizing the atretic segment and accomplishing coaxial alignment of catheters using biplane fluoroscopy, crossing the atretic segment with the soft end of perforating guidewire, stabilizing the assembly and performing graded balloon dilatation with the balloon size never exceeding 130% of pulmonary annulus diameter. For crossing the atretic PV, a retrograde approach was used in one patient where the antegrade approach was not possible.


The procedure was successful in 8/9 cases (89%). Valve opening was achieved in all eight patients with immediate fall in right ventricular (RV) systolic pressures. One neonate died following surgery after catheter induced RV perforation. All surviving cases were discharged from the hospital in good general condition with no evidence of heart failure and a room air oxygen saturation of >85%. No patient required an additional pulmonary irrigation procedure.


With appropriate patient and hardware selection, PV perforation using readily available coronary hardware is feasible in PA-IVS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PA-IVS; Pulmonary Valve Perforation; pulmonary atresia

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