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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Jan;16(1):45-55. doi: 10.1038/nrm3909. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Mammalian iron-sulphur proteins: novel insights into biogenesis and function.

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Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, USA.


Iron-sulphur (Fe-S) clusters are inorganic cofactors that are found in nearly all species and are composed of various combinations of iron and sulphur atoms. Fe-S clusters can accept or donate single electrons to carry out oxidation and reduction reactions and to facilitate electron transport. Many details of how these complex modular structures are assembled and ligated to cellular proteins in the mitochondrial, nuclear and cytosolic compartments of mammalian cells remain unclear. Recent evidence indicates that a Leu-Tyr-Arg (LYR) tripeptide motif found in some Fe-S recipient proteins may facilitate the direct and shielded transfer of Fe-S clusters from a scaffold to client proteins. Fe-S clusters are probably an unrecognized and elusive cofactor of many known proteins.

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