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Drug Test Anal. 2014 Nov-Dec;6(11-12):1144-50. doi: 10.1002/dta.1752. Epub 2014 Nov 24.

MAIIA EPO SeLect-a rapid screening kit for the detection of recombinant EPO analogues in doping control: inter-laboratory prevalidation and normative study of athlete urine and plasma samples.

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Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Doping Control Laboratory, Oslo, Norway.


Recombinant analogues of erythropoietin (EPO), epoetins, have been misused by athletes due to their performance enhancing effect since the first pharmaceutical epoetin was launched in 1987. The current methods for screening urine and plasma samples for the presence of epoetins, IEF and SAR-PAGE, have high sensitivity but are time-consuming to carry out. In an effort to ease and speed up the screening procedure for EPO, MAIIA Diagnostics has developed a combined affinity chromatography and lateral flow immunoassay, MAIIA EPO SeLect, which determines the percentage of migrated isoforms (PMI) of EPO in a sample. The reproducibility of the kit was tested by analyzing a set of negative and positive urine and plasma samples in three different laboratories. All data were analyzed with both curve fit parameters from the individual assay runs, and with lot-specific predefined curve calibration. To get a measure of endogenous variation, a normative study with athlete urine and plasma samples was conducted. The average intra-laboratory variation was 6.7% while the inter-laboratory variation for all samples was calculated to 8.8%. The athlete samples yielded an average PMI and standard deviation of 71.4 ± 7.7 for urine and 83.1 ± 10.2 for plasma, respectively. There were no signs of deviating results from tested effort urines. The results also support the use of predefined curve parameters.


WGA affinity chromatography; doping; erythropoietin; lateral flow immunoassay

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