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Antibiotics (Basel). 2014 Oct 13;3(4):461-92. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics3040461.

Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Positive Bacteria.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; (K.L.N.); (E.K.C.).


Antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs, play a significant role in many environments as a tool to remove competing organisms. In response, many bacteria have evolved mechanisms to resist these peptides and prevent AMP-mediated killing. The development of AMP resistance mechanisms is driven by direct competition between bacterial species, as well as host and pathogen interactions. Akin to the number of different AMPs found in nature, resistance mechanisms that have evolved are just as varied and may confer broad-range resistance or specific resistance to AMPs. Specific mechanisms of AMP resistance prevent AMP-mediated killing against a single type of AMP, while broad resistance mechanisms often lead to a global change in the bacterial cell surface and protect the bacterium from a large group of AMPs that have similar characteristics. AMP resistance mechanisms can be found in many species of bacteria and can provide a competitive edge against other bacterial species or a host immune response. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the largest AMP producing groups, but characterization of Gram-positive AMP resistance mechanisms lags behind that of Gram-negative species. In this review we present a summary of the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria. Understanding the mechanisms of AMP resistance in Gram-positive species can provide guidelines in developing and applying AMPs as therapeutics, and offer insight into the role of resistance in bacterial pathogenesis.


AMP; Clostridium difficile; antimicrobial; antimicrobial peptide; resistance

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