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Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Nov-Dec;49(6):473-97. doi: 10.3109/10409238.2014.953627.

Enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides: functional implications and measurement of activities.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Turku , Turku , Finland.

Abstract

Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides mediate diverse signaling effects in virtually all organs and tissues. Most models of purinergic signaling depend on functional interactions between distinct processes, including (i) the release of endogenous ATP and other nucleotides, (ii) triggering of signaling events via a series of nucleotide-selective ligand-gated P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors as well as adenosine receptors and (iii) ectoenzymatic interconversion of purinergic agonists. The duration and magnitude of purinergic signaling is governed by a network of ectoenzymes, including the enzymes of the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) family, the nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) family, ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and other alkaline and acid phosphatases, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). Along with "classical" inactivating ectoenzymes, recent data provide evidence for the co-existence of a counteracting ATP-regenerating pathway comprising the enzymes of the adenylate kinase (AK) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK/NME/NM23) families and ATP synthase. This review describes recent advances in this field, with special emphasis on purine-converting ectoenzymes as a complex and integrated network regulating purinergic signaling in such (patho)physiological states as immunomodulation, inflammation, tumorigenesis, arterial calcification and other diseases. The second part of this review provides a comprehensive overview and basic principles of major approaches employed for studying purinergic activities, including spectrophotometric Pi-liberating assays, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) analyses of purine substrates and metabolites, capillary electrophoresis, bioluminescent, fluorometric and electrochemical enzyme-coupled assays, histochemical staining, and further emphasizes their advantages, drawbacks and suitability for assaying a particular catalytic reaction.

KEYWORDS:

Adenosine deaminase; NTPDase; ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73; ecto-nucleotide kinases; enzymatic assays; purinergic signaling

PMID:
25418535
DOI:
10.3109/10409238.2014.953627
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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