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Cell. 2014 Nov 6;159(4):738-49. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.029.

Integrative biology of exercise.

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Exercise & Nutrition Research Group, School of Exercise Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia; Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Merseyside L3 5UA, UK. Electronic address:
Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.
Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, von Eulers väg 4a, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:


Exercise represents a major challenge to whole-body homeostasis provoking widespread perturbations in numerous cells, tissues, and organs that are caused by or are a response to the increased metabolic activity of contracting skeletal muscles. To meet this challenge, multiple integrated and often redundant responses operate to blunt the homeostatic threats generated by exercise-induced increases in muscle energy and oxygen demand. The application of molecular techniques to exercise biology has provided greater understanding of the multiplicity and complexity of cellular networks involved in exercise responses, and recent discoveries offer perspectives on the mechanisms by which muscle "communicates" with other organs and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on health and performance.

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