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Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Jan;53(1):143-154. doi: 10.1007/s12035-014-8995-z. Epub 2014 Nov 23.

Immunomodulatory Effect of Toll-Like Receptor-3 Ligand Poly I:C on Cortical Spreading Depression.

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Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Microbiology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.
Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurochirurgie, WestfälischeWilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.
Department of Neurology, WestfälischeWilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.
Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
Institut für Physiologie I, WestfälischeWilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.
Epilepsy Research Center, Universität Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude: A1, 48149, Münster, Germany.


The release of inflammatory mediators following cortical spreading depression (CSD) is suggested to play a role in pathophysiology of CSD-related neurological disorders. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are master regulators of innate immune function and involved in the activation of inflammatory responses in the brain. TLR3 agonist poly I:C exerts anti-inflammatory effect and prevents cell injury in the brain. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of systemic administration of poly I:C on the release of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, TGF-β1, and GM-CSF) in the brain and spleen, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, expression of GAD65, GABAAα, GABAAβ as well as Hsp70, and production of dark neurons after induction of repetitive CSD in juvenile rats. Poly I:C significantly attenuated CSD-induced production of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the brain as well as TNF-α and IL-4 in the spleen. Poly I:C did not affect enhancement of splenic lymphocyte proliferation after CSD. Administration of poly I:C increased expression of GABAAα, GABAAβ as well as Hsp70 and decreased expression of GAD65 in the entorhinal cortex compared to CSD-treated tissues. In addition, poly I:C significantly prevented production of CSD-induced dark neurons. The data indicate neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of TLR3 activation on CSD-induced neuroinflammation. Targeting TLR3 may provide a novel strategy for developing new treatments for CSD-related neurological disorders.


Cell death; Immunotherapy; Migraine; Neuroprotection; Spreading depolarization; Stroke

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