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Met Ions Life Sci. 2014;14:211-36. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9269-1_9.

The production of ammonia by multiheme cytochromes C.

Author information

1
Microbial Energy Conversion and Biotechnology, Department of Biology, Technische Universit├Ąt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstrasse 10, D-64287, Darmstadt, Germany, simon@bio.tu-darmstadt.de.

Abstract

The global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle is essential for life on Earth. Many of the underlying biotic reactions are catalyzed by a multitude of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life forms whereas others are exclusively carried out by microorganisms. The last century has seen the rise of a dramatic imbalance in the global nitrogen cycle due to human behavior that was mainly caused by the invention of the Haber-Bosch process. Its main product, ammonia, is a chemically reactive and biotically favorable form of bound nitrogen. The anthropogenic supply of reduced nitrogen to the biosphere in the form of ammonia, for example during environmental fertilization, livestock farming, and industrial processes, is mandatory in feeding an increasing world population. In this chapter, environmental ammonia pollution is linked to the activity of microbial metalloenzymes involved in respiratory energy metabolism and bioenergetics. Ammonia-producing multiheme cytochromes c are discussed as paradigm enzymes.

PMID:
25416396
DOI:
10.1007/978-94-017-9269-1_9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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