Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 22;14:303. doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0303-y.

Reliability and validity of the center for epidemiologic studies-depression scale in screening for depression among HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant women attending antenatal services in northern Uganda: a cross-sectional study.



There are limited data on the prevalence and approaches to screening for depression among pregnant women living in resource poor settings with high HIV burden.


We studied the reliability and accuracy of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in 123 (36 HIV-infected and 87 -uninfected) pregnant women receiving antenatal care at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. CES-D scores were compared to results from the psychiatrist-administered Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for current major depressive disorder (MDD), a "gold standard" for assessing depression. We employed measures of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and criterion validity [Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUROC), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), and positive predictive value (PPV)] to evaluate the reliability and validity of the CES-D scale.


35.8% of respondents were currently experiencing an MDD, as defined from outputs of the MINI-depression module. The CES-D had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92) and good discriminatory ability in detecting MINI-defined current MDDs (AUROC = 0.82). The optimum CES-D cutoff score for the identification of probable MDD was between 16 and 17. A CES-D cutoff score of 17, corresponding to Se, Sp, and PPV values of 72.7%, 78.5%, and 76.5%, is proposed for adoption in this population and performs well for HIV-infected and -uninfected women. After adjusting for baseline differences between the HIV subgroups (maternal age and marital status), HIV-infected pregnant women scored 6.2 points higher on the CES-D than HIV-uninfected women (p = 0.032).


The CES-D is a suitable instrument for screening for probable major depression among pregnant women of mixed HIV status attending antenatal services in northern Uganda.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center