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N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 15;372(3):222-31. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1411487. Epub 2014 Nov 21.

Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate in hyperkalemia.

Author information

1
From the Melbourne Renal Research Group, the Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, and the Department of Nephrology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (D.K.P.), and Renal Research, Gosford, NSW (S.D.R.) - both in Australia; ZS Pharma, Coppell (H.S.R., B.S.), and the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (W.Q.) and Renal Associates (P.P.), San Antonio - all in Texas; Boston Biostatistics Research Foundation, Framingham, MA (P.T.L.); Academic Medical Research Institute, Los Angeles (M.A.E.-S.), and Apex Research, Riverside (B.S.) - both in California; and Denver Nephrologists, Denver, (G.B.).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hyperkalemia (serum potassium level, >5.0 mmol per liter) is associated with increased mortality among patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease, or diabetes. We investigated whether sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9), a novel selective cation exchanger, could lower serum potassium levels in patients with hyperkalemia.

METHODS:

In this multicenter, two-stage, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 753 patients with hyperkalemia to receive either ZS-9 (at a dose of 1.25 g, 2.5 g, 5 g, or 10 g) or placebo three times daily for 48 hours. Patients with normokalemia (serum potassium level, 3.5 to 4.9 mmol per liter) at 48 hours were randomly assigned to receive either ZS-9 or placebo once daily on days 3 to 14 (maintenance phase). The primary end point was the exponential rate of change in the mean serum potassium level at 48 hours.

RESULTS:

At 48 hours, the mean serum potassium level had decreased from 5.3 mmol per liter at baseline to 4.9 mmol per liter in the group of patients who received 2.5 g of ZS-9, 4.8 mmol per liter in the 5-g group, and 4.6 mmol per liter in the 10-g group, for mean reductions of 0.5, 0.5, and 0.7 mmol per liter, respectively (P<0.001 for all comparisons) and to 5.1 mmol per liter in the 1.25-g group and the placebo group (mean reduction, 0.3 mmol per liter). In patients who received 5 g of ZS-9 and those who received 10 g of ZS-9, serum potassium levels were maintained at 4.7 mmol per liter and 4.5 mmol per liter, respectively, during the maintenance phase, as compared with a level of more than 5.0 mmol per liter in the placebo group (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Rates of adverse events were similar in the ZS-9 group and the placebo group (12.9% and 10.8%, respectively, in the initial phase; 25.1% and 24.5%, respectively, in the maintenance phase). Diarrhea was the most common complication in the two study groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with hyperkalemia who received ZS-9, as compared with those who received placebo, had a significant reduction in potassium levels at 48 hours, with normokalemia maintained during 12 days of maintenance therapy. (Funded by ZS Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01737697.).

PMID:
25415807
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa1411487
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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