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Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2014 Nov;20(2):51-61. doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2014-0026.

Sex hormones influence expression and function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in adipocytes: pathophysiological aspects.

Abstract

Adipose tissue plays important roles not only in storing fat but also in maintaining metabolic homeostasis by regulating hundreds of biological signaling events and the secretion of various cytokines. One of the central regulators of adipocyte differentiation is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which promotes downstream transcriptional activities, such as adiponectin. Disruption of homeostasis leads to the onset of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and other triggers for metabolic syndrome. Males and post-menopausal females are more likely to be affected with metabolic diseases than pre-menopausal females, suggesting that sex hormones might be involved in the pathogenesis and development of metabolic diseases. Indeed, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and their receptors clearly play a role in adipose regulation: they can alter fat distribution and can modify the expression and activities of PPARγ and its downstream adipocytokines. Furthermore, sex hormones affect inflammatory factors such as nitric oxygen, nitric oxygen synthase, and their surrounding components. Sex hormones are also suggested to be involved with sex differences in the efficacy of the PPARγ agonist thiazolidinediones. Therefore, thorough investigation of how sex hormone-dependent regulation of metabolic homeostasis occurs is necessary in order to develop individualized clinical therapies optimized with regard to each patient's biological condition and drug sensitivities.

PMID:
25415639
DOI:
10.1515/hmbci-2014-0026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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