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Sleep. 2015 Jun 1;38(6):877-88. doi: 10.5665/sleep.4732.

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Disturbances: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
2
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical School, Boston, MA.
3
Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.
4
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
5
Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.
6
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

There is limited research on racial/ethnic variation in sleep disturbances. This study aimed to quantify the distributions of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB), short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and self-reported sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia) across racial/ethnic groups.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING:

Six US communities.

PARTICIPANTS:

Racially/ethnically diverse men and women aged 54-93 y in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Sleep Cohort (n = 2,230).

INTERVENTIONS:

N/A.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:

Information from polysomnography-measured SDB, actigraphy-measured sleep duration and quality, and self-reported daytime sleepiness were obtained between 2010 and 2013. Overall, 15.0% of individuals had severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30); 30.9% short sleep duration (< 6 h); 6.5% poor sleep quality (sleep efficiency < 85%); and 13.9% had daytime sleepiness. Compared with Whites, Blacks had higher odds of sleep apnea syndrome (AHI ≥ 5 plus sleepiness) (sex-, age-, and study site-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20, 2.63), short sleep (OR = 4.95, 95% CI: 3.56, 6.90), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.48), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.60). Hispanics and Chinese had higher odds of SDB and short sleep than Whites. Among non-obese individuals, Chinese had the highest odds of SDB compared to Whites. Only 7.4% to 16.2% of individuals with an AHI ≥ 15 reported a prior diagnosis of sleep apnea.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sleep disturbances are prevalent among middle-aged and older adults, and vary by race/ethnicity, sex, and obesity status. The high prevalence of sleep disturbances and undiagnosed sleep apnea among racial/ethnic minorities may contribute to health disparities.

KEYWORDS:

apnea-hypopnea index; body mass index; daytime sleepiness; obesity; polysomnography; race/ethnicity; sleep disordered breathing; sleep disturbance; sleep duration; sleep quality

PMID:
25409106
PMCID:
PMC4434554
DOI:
10.5665/sleep.4732
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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