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Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1242:93-103. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1902-4_9.

Live cell imaging of FM4-64, a tool for tracing the endocytic pathways in Arabidopsis root cells.

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Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.


Confocal live imaging of the amphiphilic styryl dye FM4-64 is a valuable technique to monitor organelle dynamics and in particular endocytic pathways. After application in plants, FM4-64 immediately stains the plasma membrane and is then integrated on vesicles following endomembrane system-dependent internalization processes. Over time, FM4-64 becomes distributed throughout the full vesicular network from the plasma membrane to the vacuole, including the components of the secretory pathways. Here we provide succinct examples of the many important developmental processes in plants that rely on endocytosis and describe two suitable methods to trace the endocytic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana root cells based on the uptake of FM4-64.

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