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Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2014 Oct;228(10):1083-99. doi: 10.1177/0954411914556137.

Bacterial adherence and biofilm formation on medical implants: a review.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, India.
Newcastle University of Medicine Malaysia, Nusajaya, Malaysia.
Centre for Biomaterials Science and Technology, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, India
School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.


Biofilms are a complex group of microbial cells that adhere to the exopolysaccharide matrix present on the surface of medical devices. Biofilm-associated infections in the medical devices pose a serious problem to the public health and adversely affect the function of the device. Medical implants used in oral and orthopedic surgery are fabricated using alloys such as stainless steel and titanium. The biological behavior, such as osseointegration and its antibacterial activity, essentially depends on both the chemical composition and the morphology of the surface of the device. Surface treatment of medical implants by various physical and chemical techniques are attempted in order to improve their surface properties so as to facilitate bio-integration and prevent bacterial adhesion. The potential source of infection of the surrounding tissue and antimicrobial strategies are from bacteria adherent to or in a biofilm on the implant which should prevent both biofilm formation and tissue colonization. This article provides an overview of bacterial biofilm formation and methods adopted for the inhibition of bacterial adhesion on medical implants.


Biofilm; bacteria; infections; medical implants; nano-polymer coatings

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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