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Neuroscientist. 2016 Feb;22(1):83-97. doi: 10.1177/1073858414559409. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (ctDCS): A Novel Approach to Understanding Cerebellar Function in Health and Disease.

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Unité d'Etude du Mouvement, ULB-Erasme, Brussels, Belgium.
Department of Psychology, Brain, Action and Cognition Lab, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK.
Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Burke Medical Research Institute, Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, White Plains, NY, USA.
Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
Department of Medical-Surgical Pathophysiology and Transplants, University of Milan, Milan, Italy Clinical Center for Neurotechnology, Neurostimulation and Movement Disorders, Fondazione IRCCS "Ca' Granda" Ospedale Maggiore di Milano, Milan, Italy.
Center of Neuromodulation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.
School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.
Department of Neurology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
School of Psychology, Bangor University, Bangor, UK.
Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA


The cerebellum is critical for both motor and cognitive control. Dysfunction of the cerebellum is a component of multiple neurological disorders. In recent years, interventions have been developed that aim to excite or inhibit the activity and function of the human cerebellum. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum (ctDCS) promises to be a powerful tool for the modulation of cerebellar excitability. This technique has gained popularity in recent years as it can be used to investigate human cerebellar function, is easily delivered, is well tolerated, and has not shown serious adverse effects. Importantly, the ability of ctDCS to modify behavior makes it an interesting approach with a potential therapeutic role for neurological patients. Through both electrical and non-electrical effects (vascular, metabolic) ctDCS is thought to modify the activity of the cerebellum and alter the output from cerebellar nuclei. Physiological studies have shown a polarity-specific effect on the modulation of cerebellar-motor cortex connectivity, likely via cerebellar-thalamocortical pathways. Modeling studies that have assessed commonly used electrode montages have shown that the ctDCS-generated electric field reaches the human cerebellum with little diffusion to neighboring structures. The posterior and inferior parts of the cerebellum (i.e., lobules VI-VIII) seem particularly susceptible to modulation by ctDCS. Numerous studies have shown to date that ctDCS can modulate motor learning, and affect cognitive and emotional processes. Importantly, this intervention has a good safety profile; similar to when applied over cerebral areas. Thus, investigations have begun exploring ctDCS as a viable intervention for patients with neurological conditions.


cerebellum; cognitive; ctDCS; direct current stimulation; emotion; language; learning; modeling; motor; plasticity; safety; transcranial; working memory

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