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PeerJ. 2014 Nov 13;2:e671. doi: 10.7717/peerj.671. eCollection 2014.

Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

Author information

1
Department of Aquaculture Biotechnology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Environmental Sciences , Alwarkurchi, Tamil Nadu , India ; CIIMAR, Marine and Environmental Research Center, University of Porto , Rua dos Bragas, Porto , Portugal.
2
Department of Aquaculture Biotechnology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Environmental Sciences , Alwarkurchi, Tamil Nadu , India.

Abstract

The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations.

KEYWORDS:

Aeromonas hydrophila; Cyprinus carpio; Euphorbia hirta; Immunostimulant; NBT assay; Phagocytic ratio

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