Send to

Choose Destination
Front Cell Neurosci. 2014 Nov 3;8:345. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00345. eCollection 2014.

Role of the kallikrein-kinin system in traumatic brain injury.

Author information

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Würzburg Würzburg, Germany.
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Würzburg Würzburg, Germany.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite improvements in acute intensive care, there are currently no specific therapies to ameliorate the effects of TBI. Successful therapeutic strategies for TBI should target multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms that occur at different stages of brain injury. The kallikrein-kinin system is a promising therapeutic target for TBI as it mediates key pathologic events of traumatic brain damage, such as edema formation, inflammation, and thrombosis. Selective and specific kinin receptor antagonists and inhibitors of plasma kallikrein and coagulation factor XII have been developed, and have already shown therapeutic efficacy in animal models of stroke and TBI. However, conflicting preclinical evaluation, as well as limited and inconclusive data from clinical trials in TBI, suggests that caution should be taken before transferring observations made in animals to humans. This review summarizes current evidence on the pathologic significance of the kallikrein-kinin system during TBI in animal models and, where available, the experimental findings are compared with human data.


bradykinin; factor XII; kallikrein–kinin system; kinin receptor; traumatic brain injury

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Frontiers Media SA Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center