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Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Dec 16;42(22):13706-13. doi: 10.1093/nar/gku1183. Epub 2014 Nov 17.

Transcriptional bypass of regioisomeric ethylated thymidine lesions by T7 RNA polymerase and human RNA polymerase II.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403, USA.
2
Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403, USA.
3
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403, USA Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403, USA Yinsheng.Wang@ucr.edu.

Abstract

Alkylative damage to DNA can be induced by environmental chemicals, endogenous metabolites and some commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents. The regioisomeric N3-, O(2)- and O(4)-ethylthymidine (N3-, O(2)- and O(4)-EtdT, respectively) represent an important class of ethylated DNA lesions. Using nonreplicative double-stranded vectors containing an N3-EtdT, O(2)-EtdT or O(4)-EtdT at a defined site in the template strand, herein we examined the effects of these lesions on DNA transcription mediated by single-subunit T7 RNA polymerase or multisubunit human RNA polymerase II in vitro and in human cells. We found that O(4)-EtdT is highly mutagenic and exclusively induces the misincorporation of guanine opposite the lesion, whereas N3-EtdT and O(2)-EtdT display promiscuous miscoding properties during transcription. In addition, N3-EtdT and O(2)-EtdT were found to inhibit strongly DNA transcription in vitro and in certain human cells. Moreover, N3-EtdT, but not O(2)-EtdT or O(4)-EtdT, is an efficient substrate for transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. These findings provide new important insights into how these alkylated DNA lesions compromise the flow of genetic information, which may help to understand the risk of these lesions in living cells.

PMID:
25404131
PMCID:
PMC4267633
DOI:
10.1093/nar/gku1183
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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