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Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan;12(1):11-26. doi: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2014.192. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Emerging biomarkers in head and neck cancer in the era of genomics.

Author information

1
Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1650 Orleans Street, CRB-1 Room 344, Baltimore, MD 21287-0013, USA.
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1650 Orleans Street, CRB-1 Room 344, Baltimore, MD 21287-0013, USA.
3
1] Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1650 Orleans Street, CRB-1 Room 344, Baltimore, MD 21287-0013, USA. [2] Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1650 Orleans Street, CRB-1 Room 344, Baltimore, MD 21287-0013, USA.

Abstract

Head and neck cancer (HNC) broadly includes carcinomas arising from the mucosal epithelia of the head and neck region as well as various cell types of salivary glands and the thyroid. As reflected by the multiple sites and histologies of HNC, the molecular characteristics and clinical outcomes of this disease vary widely. In this Review, we focus on established and emerging biomarkers that are most relevant to nasopharyngeal carcinoma and head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which includes primary sites in the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx. Applications and limitations of currently established biomarkers are discussed along with examples of successful biomarker development. For emerging biomarkers, preclinical or retrospective data are also described in the context of recently completed comprehensive molecular analyses of HNSCC, which provide a broad genetic landscape and molecular classification beyond histology and clinical characteristics. We will highlight the ongoing effort that will see a shift from prognostic to predictive biomarker development in HNC with the goal of delivering individualized cancer therapy.

PMID:
25403939
DOI:
10.1038/nrclinonc.2014.192
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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