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J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec 20;32(36):4155-61. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.58.2569. Epub 2014 Nov 17.

Germline mutations in SUFU cause Gorlin syndrome-associated childhood medulloblastoma and redefine the risk associated with PTCH1 mutations.

Author information

1
Miriam J. Smith, Simon G. Williams, Sanjeev S. Bhaskar, James O'Sullivan, Beverley Anderson, Sarah B. Daly, Jill E. Urquhart, Zaynab Bholah, William G. Newman, and D. Gareth R. Evans, Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, and Central Manchester University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust; Deemesh Oudit, Christie NHS Foundation Trust; Edmund Cheesman and Anna Kelsey, Central Manchester University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital; Martin G. McCabe, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom; and Christian Beetz, Institut für Klinische Chemie und Laboratoriumsdiagnostik Universitätsklinikum Jena, Jena, Germany.
2
Miriam J. Smith, Simon G. Williams, Sanjeev S. Bhaskar, James O'Sullivan, Beverley Anderson, Sarah B. Daly, Jill E. Urquhart, Zaynab Bholah, William G. Newman, and D. Gareth R. Evans, Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, and Central Manchester University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust; Deemesh Oudit, Christie NHS Foundation Trust; Edmund Cheesman and Anna Kelsey, Central Manchester University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital; Martin G. McCabe, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom; and Christian Beetz, Institut für Klinische Chemie und Laboratoriumsdiagnostik Universitätsklinikum Jena, Jena, Germany. gareth.evans@cmft.nhs.uk.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Heterozygous germline PTCH1 mutations are causative of Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma), but detection rates > 70% have rarely been reported. We aimed to define the causative mutations in individuals with Gorlin syndrome without PTCH1 mutations.

METHODS:

We undertook exome sequencing on lymphocyte DNA from four unrelated individuals from families with Gorlin syndrome with no PTCH1 mutations found by Sanger sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), or RNA analysis.

RESULTS:

A germline heterozygous nonsense mutation in SUFU was identified in one of four exomes. Sanger sequencing of SUFU in 23 additional PTCH1-negative Gorlin syndrome families identified a SUFU mutation in a second family. Copy-number analysis of SUFU by MLPA revealed a large heterozygous deletion in a third family. All three SUFU-positive families fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Gorlin syndrome, although none had odontogenic jaw keratocysts. Each SUFU-positive family included a single case of medulloblastoma, whereas only two (1.7%) of 115 individuals with Gorlin syndrome and a PTCH1 mutation developed medulloblastoma.

CONCLUSION:

We demonstrate convincing evidence that SUFU mutations can cause classical Gorlin syndrome. Our study redefines the risk of medulloblastoma in Gorlin syndrome, dependent on the underlying causative gene. Previous reports have found a 5% risk of medulloblastoma in Gorlin syndrome. We found a < 2% risk in PTCH1 mutation-positive individuals, with a risk up to 20× higher in SUFU mutation-positive individuals. Our data suggest childhood brain magnetic resonance imaging surveillance is justified in SUFU-related, but not PTCH1-related, Gorlin syndrome.

PMID:
25403219
DOI:
10.1200/JCO.2014.58.2569
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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