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World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2014 Nov 15;5(4):514-22. doi: 10.4291/wjgp.v5.i4.514.

Alterations of the gut microbiome and metabolome in alcoholic liver disease.

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1
Wei Zhong, Zhanxiang Zhou, Center for Translational Biomedical Research, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, United States.

Abstract

Alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of liver diseases and liver-related death worldwide. The gut is a habitat for billions of microorganisms which promotes metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Alterations of gut microbiome by alcohol consumption are referred to bacterial overgrowth, release of bacteria-derived products, and/or changed microbiota equilibrium. Alcohol consumption also perturbs the function of gastrointestinal mucosa and elicits a pathophysiological condition. These adverse effects caused by alcohol may ultimately result in a broad change of gastrointestinal luminal metabolites such as bile acids, short chain fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids. Gut microbiota alterations, metabolic changes produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment, and the host factors are all critical contributors to the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease. This review summarizes recent findings of how alcohol-induced alterations of gut microbiota and metabolome, and discusses the mechanistic link between gastrointestinal dyshomeostasis and alcoholic liver injury.

KEYWORDS:

Alcoholic liver disease; Gut metabolome; Microbiome

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