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N Engl J Med. 2014 Dec 11;371(24):2255-66. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1402685. Epub 2014 Nov 15.

Blood pressure in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

Author information

1
From the University of Colorado, Denver (R.W.S., G.B.); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh (K.Z.A., K.T.B., C.G.M.); Tufts Medical Center (R.D.P., D.C.M.) and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (T.I.S., P.G.C.) - both in Boston; Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (V.E.T., M.C.H., P.C.H.); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (W.E.B.); Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City (F.T.W., J.J.G.); Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (F.F.R.-O., A.B.C.); and the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (M.F.F.).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease.

METHODS:

In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume.

RESULTS:

The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P=0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril-telmisartan group and the lisinopril-placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P=0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (-1.17 vs. -0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P=0.002).

CONCLUSIONS:

In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly alter the rate of increase in total kidney volume. As compared with standard blood-pressure control, rigorous blood-pressure control was associated with a slower increase in total kidney volume, no overall change in the estimated GFR, a greater decline in the left-ventricular-mass index, and greater reduction in urinary albumin excretion. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; HALT-PKD [Study A] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00283686.).

PMID:
25399733
PMCID:
PMC4343258
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa1402685
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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