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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Jan 15;308(2):H135-45. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00532.2014. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

Diet and sex modify exercise and cardiac adaptation in the mouse.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; Department of Physiology, Sarver Molecular Cardiovascular Research Program, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; konhilas@arizona.edu.
2
Department of Physiology, Sarver Molecular Cardiovascular Research Program, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona;
3
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado;
4
University of Colorado Denver, and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado;
5
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, Colorado;
6
Department of Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; and.
7
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado;
8
Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Abstract

The heart adapts to exercise stimuli in a sex-dimorphic manner when mice are fed the traditional soy-based chow. Females undergo more voluntary exercise (4 wk) than males and exhibit more cardiac hypertrophy per kilometer run (18, 32). We have found that diet plays a critical role in cage wheel exercise and cardiac adaptation to the exercise stimulus in this sex dimorphism. Specifically, feeding male mice a casein-based, soy-free diet increases daily running distance over soy-fed counterparts to equal that of females. Moreover, casein-fed males have a greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to exercise compared with soy-fed males. To further explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we performed a candidate-based RT-PCR screen on genes previously implicated in diet- or exercise-based cardiac hypertrophy. Of the genes screened, many exhibit significant exercise, diet, or sex effects but only transforming growth factor-β1 shows a significant three-way interaction with no genes showing a two-way interaction. Finally, we show that the expression and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α2 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase is dependent on exercise, diet, and sex.

KEYWORDS:

cardiac hypertrophy; diet; sex and exercise; soy

PMID:
25398983
PMCID:
PMC4338936
DOI:
10.1152/ajpheart.00532.2014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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