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Methods Enzymol. 2014;546:319-36. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-801185-0.00015-5.

CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing in mice by single plasmid injection.

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Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.
Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan. Electronic address:


CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome modification has opened a new era for elucidating gene function. Gene knockout mice can be generated by injecting humanized Cas9 (hCas9) mRNA and guide RNA (sgRNA) into fertilized eggs. However, delivery of RNA instead of DNA to the fertilized oocyte requires extra preparation and extra care with storage. To simplify the method of delivery, we injected the circular pX330 plasmids expressing both hCas9 and sgRNA and found that mutant mice were generated as efficiently as with RNA injection. Different from the linearized plasmid, the circular plasmid decreased the chance of integration into the host genome. We also developed the pCAG-EGxxFP reporter plasmid for evaluating the sgRNA activity by observing EGFP fluorescence in HEK293T cells. The combination of these techniques allowed us to develop a rapid, easy, and reproducible strategy for targeted mutagenesis in living mice. This chapter provides an experimental protocol for the design of sgRNAs, the construction of pX330-sgRNA and pCAG-EGxxFP-target plasmids, the validation of cleavage efficiency in vitro, and the generation of targeted gene mutant mice. These mice can be generated within a month.


Knockin; Knockout; Microinjection; Plasmid; Zygote; pCAG-EGxxFP; pX330; ssODN

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