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Prz Gastroenterol. 2014;9(5):297-301. doi: 10.5114/pg.2014.46166. Epub 2014 Oct 19.

Risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease: the role of diet.

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National Food and Nutrition Institute, Warsaw, Poland.



Nutrition can contribute to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The relevant studies often provide contradictory results.


To determine GERD risk factors associated with dietary habits.


A total of 513 subjects were included. The study group consisted of adults with a recent clinically confirmed diagnosis of GERD, and the control group were healthy adults. The research tool was a proprietary questionnaire. Risk factors were evaluated by logistic regression models.


An association was found between the severity of typical GERD symptoms and a certain diet (p < 0.001). The symptoms were experienced more often after fatty, fried, sour, or spicy food and sweets. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed the following risk factors: eating 1-2 meals per day (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.75-6.98), everyday consumption of peppermint tea (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.14-3.50), and eating one, big meal in the evening instead of dinner and supper (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.05-3.11). The multivariate analysis confirmed that frequent peppermint tea consumption was a risk factor (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.08-3.70).


Taking into consideration the results of this study, it seems that patients should be recommended to eat more than three meals a day and eat dinner and supper at appropriate times instead of one, big meal in the evening. The role of frequent peppermint tea consumption in GERD development requires further studies.


dietary habits; gastroesophageal reflux disease; risk factors

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