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Biochem Cell Biol. 2014 Dec;92(6):555-63. doi: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0074. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Discovery of novel membrane binding structures and functions.

Author information

1
a Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Abstract

The function of a protein is determined by its intrinsic activity in the context of its subcellular distribution. Membranes localize proteins within cellular compartments and govern their specific activities. Discovering such membrane-protein interactions is important for understanding biological mechanisms and could uncover novel sites for therapeutic intervention. We present a method for detecting membrane interactive proteins and their exposed residues that insert into lipid bilayers. Although the development process involved analysis of how C1b, C2, ENTH, FYVE, Gla, pleckstrin homology (PH), and PX domains bind membranes, the resulting membrane optimal docking area (MODA) method yields predictions for a given protein of known three-dimensional structures without referring to canonical membrane-targeting modules. This approach was tested on the Arf1 GTPase, ATF2 acetyltransferase, von Willebrand factor A3 domain, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae MsrB protein and further refined with membrane interactive and non-interactive FAPP1 and PKD1 pleckstrin homology domains, respectively. Furthermore we demonstrate how this tool can be used to discover unprecedented membrane binding functions as illustrated by the Bro1 domain of Alix, which was revealed to recognize lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). Validation of novel membrane-protein interactions relies on other techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which was used here to map the sites of micelle interaction. Together this indicates that genome-wide identification of known and novel membrane interactive proteins and sites is now feasible and provides a new tool for functional annotation of the proteome.

KEYWORDS:

annotation de la structure des protéines; bilayer insertion; iditification de site d’interaction lipidique; insertion dans la bi-couche lipidique; interaction phospholipidique; interface des interactions membranaires; lipid site identification; membrane interaction interface; peripheral membrane protein; phospholipid interaction; protein structure annotation; protéine membranaire périphérique

PMID:
25394204
PMCID:
PMC4267288
DOI:
10.1139/bcb-2014-0074
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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