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PLoS Comput Biol. 2014 Nov 13;10(11):e1003945. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003945. eCollection 2014 Nov.

Evolution of all-or-none strategies in repeated public goods dilemmas.

Author information

1
Centro de Biologia Molecular e Ambiental da Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal; INESC-ID & Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Taguspark, Porto Salvo, Portugal; Centro de Física da Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal; ATP-group, CMAF, Instituto para a Investigação Interdisciplinar, Lisboa, Portugal.
2
INESC-ID & Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Taguspark, Porto Salvo, Portugal; ATP-group, CMAF, Instituto para a Investigação Interdisciplinar, Lisboa, Portugal.
3
Centro de Biologia Molecular e Ambiental da Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal; ATP-group, CMAF, Instituto para a Investigação Interdisciplinar, Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Matemática e Aplicações da Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Abstract

Many problems of cooperation involve repeated interactions among the same groups of individuals. When collective action is at stake, groups often engage in Public Goods Games (PGG), where individuals contribute (or not) to a common pool, subsequently sharing the resources. Such scenarios of repeated group interactions materialize situations in which direct reciprocation to groups may be at work. Here we study direct group reciprocity considering the complete set of reactive strategies, where individuals behave conditionally on what they observed in the previous round. We study both analytically and by computer simulations the evolutionary dynamics encompassing this extensive strategy space, witnessing the emergence of a surprisingly simple strategy that we call All-Or-None (AoN). AoN consists in cooperating only after a round of unanimous group behavior (cooperation or defection), and proves robust in the presence of errors, thus fostering cooperation in a wide range of group sizes. The principles encapsulated in this strategy share a level of complexity reminiscent of that found already in 2-person games under direct and indirect reciprocity, reducing, in fact, to the well-known Win-Stay-Lose-Shift strategy in the limit of the repeated 2-person Prisoner's Dilemma.

PMID:
25393661
PMCID:
PMC4230726
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003945
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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