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PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Nov 13;8(11):e3257. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003257. eCollection 2014.

The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

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Global Health Programs, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University and VPH-Biotec Global Consortium, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
Department of Parasitology, Hôspital Cochin, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.
Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Sussex, United Kingdom.
College of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil (CCA/UFPB), Areia, Paraiba, Brazil.
Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
Food Animal Health Research Program, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, United States of America.
Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya.
Department of Pathology and Microbiology University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada.
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome, Italy.
Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, Indiana, United States of America.
The Ohio State University College of Public Health, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Thailand MOPH-U.S. CDC Collaboration, Bangkok, Thailand.


Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs.

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