Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Public Health. 2015 Jan;105(1):18-26.

Public Health and Solitary Confinement in the United States.

Author information

David H. Cloud is with the Substance Use and Mental Health Program, Vera Institute of Justice, New York, NY. Ernest Drucker is professor emeritus in the Department of Family and Social, Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; he is also with the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY. Angela Browne and Jim Parsons are with the Vera Institute of Justice, New York, NY.


The history of solitary confinement in the United States stretches from the silent prisons of 200 years ago to today's supermax prisons, mechanized panopticons that isolate tens of thousands, sometimes for decades. We examined the living conditions and characteristics of the populations in solitary confinement. As part of the growing movement for reform, public health agencies have an ethical obligation to help address the excessive use of solitary confinement in jails and prisons in accordance with established public health functions (e.g., violence prevention, health equity, surveillance, and minimizing of occupational and psychological hazards for correctional staff). Public health professionals should lead efforts to replace reliance on this overly punitive correctional policy with models based on rehabilitation and restorative justice.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center