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Br J Nutr. 2015 Jan 14;113(1):159-71. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514003444. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Evaluation of older Chinese people's macronutrient intake status: results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

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Priority Research Centre for Gender, Health and Ageing, School of Medicine and Public Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle,W-4 HMRI Building, Lot 1 Kookaburra Circuit,New Lambton Heights,NSW2305,Australia.
Department of Medicine,University of Adelaide,Adelaide,SA,Australia.
Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine and Public Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle,Newcastle,NSW,Australia.


Little is known about the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people. The present study evaluated the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people (aged ≥ 60 years), investigated whether they had intake levels that met the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and explored the associations between macronutrient intakes and age groups, sex, education levels, work status, BMI groups, urbanicity levels and four socio-economic regions of China (Northeast, East Coast, Central and Western). Dietary intake data of 2746 older Chinese with complete dietary intake data in the Longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 wave) carried out across four diverse regions were analysed. Dietary intake data were obtained by interviews using 24 h recalls over three consecutive days. The MUFA:SFA ratios were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table. Less than one-third of the older Chinese people included in the present study had intake levels meeting the adequate intake for carbohydrate-energy and fat-energy; less than one-fifth had intake levels meeting the recommended nutrient intake for protein-energy; and more than half of the older people had fat-energy intakes higher than the DRI. There were strong associations between the proportions of energy from the three macronutrients and education levels, urbanicity levels and the four socio-economic regions of China, with older people living in the East Coast region having different patterns of macronutrient-energy intakes when compared with those living in the other three regions. Macronutrient intakes across different urbanicity levels in the four regions revealed considerable geographical variations in dietary patterns, which will affect the risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Clinical interventions and public health policies should recognise these regional differences in dietary patterns.


Dietary Reference Intakes; Macronutrient intakes; Older Chinese people; Socio-economic regions

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