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Annu Rev Anim Biosci. 2015;3:419-45. doi: 10.1146/annurev-animal-022114-111112. Epub 2014 Nov 5.

The impact of the milk glycobiome on the neonate gut microbiota.

Author information

1
Department of Viticulture and Enology.

Abstract

Human milk is a complete source of nourishment for the infant. Exclusive breastfeeding not only sustains the infant's development but also guides the proliferation of a protective intestinal microbiota. Among the many components of milk that modulate the infant gut microbiota, the milk glycans, which comprise free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, are increasingly recognized as drivers of microbiota development and overall gut health. These glycans may display pleiotropic functions, conferring protection against infectious diseases and also acting as prebiotics, selecting for the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria. The prebiotic effect of milk glycans has direct application to prevention of diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, a common and devastating disease of preterm infants. In this article, we review the impact of the human (and bovine) milk glycome on gut health through establishment of a milk-oriented microbiota in the neonate.

KEYWORDS:

bifidobacteria; glycobiome; milk bioactives; milk oligosaccharides; neonatal microbiota

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