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Annu Rev Pathol. 2015;10:51-81. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-012513-104640. Epub 2014 Oct 24.

Leukocyte chemoattractant receptors in human disease pathogenesis.

Author information

1
Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research and Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California 94304; email: bazabel@alum.mit.edu.

Abstract

Combinations of leukocyte attractant ligands and cognate heptahelical receptors specify the systemic recruitment of circulating cells by triggering integrin-dependent adhesion to endothelial cells, supporting extravasation, and directing specific intratissue localization via gradient-driven chemotaxis. Chemoattractant receptors also control leukocyte egress from lymphoid organs and peripheral tissues. In this article, we summarize the fundamental mechanics of leukocyte trafficking, from the evolution of multistep models of leukocyte recruitment and navigation to the regulation of chemoattractant availability and function by atypical heptahelical receptors. To provide a more complete picture of the migratory circuits involved in leukocyte trafficking, we integrate a number of nonchemokine chemoattractant receptors into our discussion. Leukocyte chemoattractant receptors play key roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergy, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. We review recent advances in our understanding of chemoattractant receptors in disease pathogenesis, with a focus on genome-wide association studies in humans and the translational implications of mechanistic studies in animal disease models.

KEYWORDS:

GPCR; GWAS; animal disease models; chemoattractant; chemokine; chemotaxis; homing; migration; polymorphisms; small-molecule antagonists; trafficking

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