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Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2014 Jul 1;1:73-80.

Pigment-Dispersing Factor Signaling and Circadian Rhythms in Insect Locomotor Activity.

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Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.


Though expressed in relatively few neurons in insect nervous systems, pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) plays many roles in the control of behavior and physiology. PDF's role in circadian timekeeping is its best-understood function and the focus of this review. Here we recount the isolation and characterization of insect PDFs, review the evidence that PDF acts as a circadian clock output factor, and discuss emerging models of how PDF functions within circadian clock neuron network of Drosophila, the species in which this peptide's circadian roles are best understood.


Circadian; Neuromodulation; Neuropeptide; Pigment Dispersing Factor; Pigment Dispersing Hormone

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