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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Dec;23(12):2757-64. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0687. Epub 2014 Nov 7.

Change in population prevalences of human papillomavirus after initiation of vaccination: the high-throughput HPV monitoring study.

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Department of Clinical Microbiology, Laboratory Medicine Skåne, Malmö, Sweden.
Department of Monitoring and Evaluation, The Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.



Organized human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was introduced in Sweden in 2012. On-demand vaccination was in effect from 2006 to 2011. We followed the HPV prevalences in Southern Sweden from 2008 to 2013.


Consecutive, anonymized samples from the Chlamydia trachomatis screening were analyzed for HPV DNA for two low-risk types and 14 high-risk types using PCR with genotyping using mass spectrometry. We analyzed 44,146 samples in 2008, 5,224 in 2012, and 5,815 in 2013.


Registry-determined HPV vaccination coverages of the population in Southern Sweden increased mainly among 13- to 22-year-old women. Most analyzed samples contained genital swabs from women and the HPV6 prevalence in these samples decreased from 7.0% in 2008 to 4.2% in 2013 [-40.0%; P < 0.0005 (χ(2) test)]. HPV16 decreased from 14.9% to 8.7% (-41.6%; P < 0.0005) and HPV18 decreased from 7.9% to 4.3% (-45.6%; P < 0.0005) among 13- to 22-year-old women. There were only small changes in vaccination coverage among 23- to 40-year-old women. In this age group, HPV18 decreased marginally (-19.6%; P = 0.04) and there were no significant changes for HPV6 or HPV16. Two nonvaccine HPV types (HPV52 and HPV56) were increased among 13- to 22-year-old women, both in 2012 and 2013.


A major reduction of HPV6, 16, and 18 prevalences is seen in the age groups with a concomitant increase in HPV vaccination coverage. The minor changes seen for nonvaccine types will require further investigation.


Monitoring of type-specific HPV prevalences may detect early effects of HPV vaccination.

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