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Glob Health Action. 2014 Oct 29;7:25363. doi: 10.3402/gha.v7.25363. eCollection 2014.

Cause-specific childhood mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites.

Author information

1
Matlab HDSS, Bangladesh; International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
2
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Bandarban HDSS, Bangladesh.
3
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Chakaria HDSS, Bangladesh; Centre for Equity and Health Systems, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
4
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; AMK HDSS, Bangladesh; Centre for Population, Urbanisation and Climate Change, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
5
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso; Nouna Health Research Centre, Nouna, Burkina Faso.
6
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Ouagadougou HDSS, Burkina Faso; Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population, Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
7
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Taabo HDSS, Côte d'Ivoire; , Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
8
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Taabo HDSS, Côte d'Ivoire; Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
9
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Taabo HDSS, Côte d'Ivoire; Université Félix Houphoët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
10
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Kilite-Awlaelo HDSS, Ethiopia; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
11
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Kilite-Awlaelo HDSS, Ethiopia; Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
12
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Navrongo HDSS, Ghana; Navrongo Health Research Centre, Navrongo, Ghana.
13
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Dodowa HDSS, Ghana; Dodowa Health Research Centre, Dodowa, Ghana.
14
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Ballabgarh HDSS, India; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
15
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Kilifi HDSS, Kenya; KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.
16
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Kilifi HDSS, Kenya; KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya; Department of Medicine, Imperial College, St. Mary's Hospital, London.
17
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Kisumu HDSS, Kenya; KEMRI/CDC Research and Public Health Collaboration and KEMRI Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya.
18
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Nairobi HDSS, Kenya; African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya.
19
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Niakhar HDSS, Senegal; Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), Dakar, Sénégal.
20
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Agincourt HDSS, South Africa; MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
21
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Agincourt HDSS, South Africa; MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
22
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Africa Centre HDSS, South Africa; Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Somkhele, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
23
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Africa Centre HDSS, South Africa; Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Somkhele, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; National Health Laboratory, Surveillance & Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Dudelange, Luxembourg.
24
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; FilaBavi HDSS, Vietnam; Health System Research, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
25
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
26
INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana; Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam; osman.sankoh@indepth-network.org.
27
MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; WHO Collaborating Centre for Verbal Autopsy, Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Childhood mortality, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major global concern and the target of Millennium Development Goal 4. Although the majority of childhood deaths occur in Africa and Asia, these are also the regions where such deaths are least likely to be registered. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available.

OBJECTIVE:

To present a description of cause-specific mortality rates and fractions over the first 15 years of life as documented by INDEPTH Network sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia.

DESIGN:

All childhood deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with verbal autopsy (VA) interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provided person-time denominators for mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions are presented according to WHO 2012 VA cause groups for neonatal, infant, 1-4 year and 5-14 year age groups.

RESULTS:

A total of 28,751 childhood deaths were documented during 4,387,824 person-years over 18 sites. Infant mortality ranged from 11 to 78 per 1,000 live births, with under-5 mortality from 15 to 152 per 1,000 live births. Sites in Vietnam and Kenya accounted for the lowest and highest mortality rates reported.

CONCLUSIONS:

Many children continue to die from relatively preventable causes, particularly in areas with high rates of malaria and HIV/AIDS. Neonatal mortality persists at relatively high, and perhaps sometimes under-documented, rates. External causes of death are a significant childhood problem in some settings.

KEYWORDS:

Africa; Asia; Childhood; INDEPTH Network; InterVA; mortality; verbal autopsy

PMID:
25377325
PMCID:
PMC4220125
DOI:
10.3402/gha.v7.25363
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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