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Am J Clin Exp Urol. 2014 Apr 5;2(1):62-70. eCollection 2014.

Androgen receptor coactivators that inhibit prostate cancer growth.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY.
2
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY ; Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY ; Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY.
3
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY ; Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY ; Department of New York Harbor Healthcare System, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY.

Abstract

It is well documented that androgen receptor (AR), a steroid hormone receptor, is important for prostate cancer (PCa) growth. Conversely, however, there is increasing evidence that activation of AR by androgens can also lead to growth suppression in prostate cells. AR mediated transcription is regulated by a number of different transcriptional coactivators. Changes in expression level or cellular localization of specific coactivators may play a crucial role in this switch between proliferative and anti- proliferative processes regulated by AR target gene programs. In this review, we discuss the expression and function of several AR coactivators exhibiting growth suppressive function in PCa, including ARA70/ELE1/NCOA4, androgen receptor coactivator p44/MEP50/WDR77, TBLR1, and ART-27. In luciferase reporter assays, they all have been shown to activate AR mediated transcriptional activation. ARA70 exists in two forms, the full length nuclear ARA70α and internally spliced cytoplasmic ARA70β. For p44 and TBLR1, we identified nuclear and cytoplasmic forms with distinct expression and function. In comparison of their expression (ARA70α, p44, TBLR1 and ART-27) in prostate, these coactivators are expressed in the nucleus of benign prostate epithelial cells while they are more predominantly expressed in cytoplasmic form (ARA70β, cytoplasmic p44 and TBLR1) in PCa. Consistent with their nuclear expression in benign prostate, the nuclear form of these coactivators inhibit PCa growth targeting a subset of AR target genes. In contrast, the cytoplasmic versions of these proteins enhance PCa growth and invasion. Interestingly, first characterized as an AR coactivator in luciferase assays, ART-27 functions as corepressor for endogenous AR target genes. Importantly, the growth inhibitions by these nuclear proteins are androgen-dependent processes and the regulation of invasion is androgen-independent. Understanding the molecular switches involved in the transition from AR dependent growth promotion to growth suppression and dysregulation of these coactivator proteins promoting androgen-independent invasion may lead to identification of novel therapeutic targets for PCa.

KEYWORDS:

Androgen receptor; coactivator; growth inhibition; prostate cancer

PMID:
25374906
PMCID:
PMC4219292

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